The Hyksos and the Israelites
After the hasty retreat of the Israelites from Egypt, Neferhotep I’s brother, Sobkhotpe IV, succeeded him, not his son Wahneferhotep. This can be explained by the 10th Plague of Egypt; the death of the firstborn. In addition, if the entire army of Egypt drowned in the Red Sea, as discussed previously, this would leave Egypt utterly defenseless against attack.
Shortly after leaving Egypt, we find that the Israelites encounter the Amalekites (Exodus 17:8). It has been speculated that the Amalekites received word from the Israelites about the sorry state of Egypt and flooded into the country, taking it by storm. Manetho, here quoted by Elizabeth Mitchell and Ken Ham, writes
Men of ignoble birth out of the eastern parts . . . had boldness enough to make an expedition into our country and with ease subdue it by force, yet without hazarding a battle with them . . . This whole nation was styled Hycsos [emphasis theirs] (258-59).
This has puzzled historians for centuries. How could anyone slip past the Egyptians without notice and take the whole country “without hazarding a battle”? The most logical explanation is that they didn’t have an army at this point; it was at the bottom of the Red Sea. The Amalekites may have been the mysterious Hyksos.
The Period of the Kings
To further show the accuracy of the Revised Chronology, each instance will be touched on lightly, due to the amount of information regarding this time period.
Dr. Elizabeth Mitchell and Ken Ham outline a series of ten references to Egyptian pharaohs in the period of the kings of Israel and Judah.
- David and Genubath. An Edomite king had a son with the sister of Queen Tahpenes, Genubath, and he became the ruler of Edom. Taxes were extracted from the land of Genubatye during the reign of Thutmosis.
- Solomon’s wife. Solomon married an Egyptian princess. She is assumed by Revised Chronologists to have been Nefrubity, a daughter of Thutmosis I. She disappears from the records of Egypt, assumed by historians to be dead.
- The Queen of Sheba was Hatshepsut. Egypt is often referred to as the kingdom of the South in the Bible. The Queen of Sheba, or Queen of the South came to hear of the wisdom of Solomon, or, if speculation is correct, to see her sister, who had married King Solomon years earlier.
- Shishak loots the Temple. Thutmosis III is known to have conquered much of Palestine in his days. We find that during Rehoboam’s reign, the Temple was looted and much of the articles of the Temple show up in reliefs on the pharaoh’s edifices. Shishak should not be identified with Sheshonq.
- Zerah the Ethiopian should be identified with Amenhotep II, a great archer in Egyptian history. He came against King Asa of Judah.
- Ahab may have been the king mentioned in the Amarna letters from the reign of Akhenaten. It is addressed to Amon (Ahab), king of Sumur (Samaria).
- The Hittites were supposedly destroyed in 1,200 B.C. by Ramses III, but records of the nation still exist in 800 B.C., when the Assyrians war with them and ultimately destroy them.
- Merneptah, son of Ramses II (the Great), wrote that “Israel is laid waste, his seed is not.” This speaks of the capture of the Northern Kingdom of Israel by Assyria around 722 B.C.
- Taharka was employed by Hezekiah to scare off Sennacherib of Assyria in 709 B.C. Ashurbanipal later sacked Thebes and killed Taharka.
- Necho II was the pharaoh who had been employed by God to fight Carchemish of Assyria. Josiah attempted to stop him, but was killed in battle. (Ham and Mitchell, 259-62)
Egypt and the Prophets
Jeremiah prophesied that God would “give Pharaoh Hophra king of Egypt into the hand of his enemies and into the hand of those who seek his life . . .” in Jeremiah 44:30. Hophra fled from Egypt to Assyria, acquired an army and returned, only to be defeated, just as Jeremiah predicted.
In the Book of Daniel, Daniel sees a vision of a ram and a goat. The goat loses its large horn after vanquishing the ram and four horns grow from the original horn, the four heirs of Alexander the Great’s kingdom (Daniel 8). One of these heirs was Ptolemy, a general of Alexander’s and he inherited the kingdom involving Egypt. It happened just as the LORD ordained it.
Finally, there are two major chronologies of Ancient Egypt; the Traditional Chronology and the Revised Chronology. The Traditional Chronology originally was promoted by archaeologists and historians who were not seeking to discredit the Bible, such as Jean François Champollion and Sir Matthew William Flinders Petrie. Over time, however, the Chronology has been used as a tool by opposition to the faith as evidence against it. In response to this, the Revised Chronology strives to honor God by harmonizing the history of the Bible with the history of Egypt. Based on all the evidence presented, the Revised Chronology seems to better explain the evidence we see, although the Traditional Chronology has its high points as well, such as confirmation among its own records.
Isaiah warned against going down to Egypt for help (Isaiah 31:1). This phrase has come to symbolize a warning not to go to the world for truth. God determines truth. Historians examine fragmentary clues and fill in the gaps based on their presuppositions . . . Accepting traditional Egyptian chronology necessitates rejection of biblical truth. Accepting biblical chronology allows a reconstruction of ancient chronology on a foundation of truth. Viewing the evidence from a biblical framework makes the histories of Egypt and the Old Testament fit together like two sides of a zipper (Ham and Mitchell, 263).
Jesus puts it best when he says, “I am the way, the truth, and the life. No one comes to the Father except through Me.” In much the same way, Christians should strive to stand uncompromisingly on the truth of God’s Word, no matter what the world may say. This has been the case not only in the subject of Ancient Egypt, but also Assyria, Babylon, the Hittites, and many, many other examples.